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Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is a viral disease of cattle caused by a capripoxvirus (as sheep and goat pox viruses); it is characterised by fever, nodules on the skin, and it may lead to severe losses, especially in naive animals. Originally affecting cattle across Africa, the disease has spread outside the continent with outbreaks in Israel and Lebanon in 2012–2013 and currently (2013–2016) epizootics in Turkey, Cyprus, Greece, Bulgaria, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Serbia, Kosovo, Azerbaijan, Albania and the Russian Federation are reported.
To control the current LSD epidemic in the European Union (EU), the competent authorities of the affected Member States (MS) are currently implementing a total stamping-out policy of the affected holdings (stamping out the whole herd after detection of an infected case) coupled with vaccination using live homologous vaccines since there is consensus that stamping out alone does not seem sufficient to effectively control the disease, in line with the advice provided in the 2015 EFSA’s scientific opinion.
In accordance with Article 29 of Regulation (EC) No 178/2002, the Commission asks the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA): to assess the implications in disease spread and persistence from the implementation of a partial stamping-out policy (killing and destruction of clinically affected animals only) in holdings where the presence of LSD has been confirmed, against the current EFSA’s advice and policy in place for total stamping out of infected herds coupled with vaccination.
Due to the fast spread of LSDV throughout south-eastern Europe, it appears particularly important to provide insights into the effect of vaccinating susceptible animals before the virus has been introduced in a region or country on the spread of LSDV.
The EFSA Animal Health and Welfare panel have received a request from the EU commission to provide a “Scientific opinion concerning a multifactorial approach on the use of animal and non-animal based measures to assess the welfare of pigs” EFSA-Q-2013-00667 The deadline for completion is 30/04/2014 http://registerofquestions.efsa.europa.eu/roqFrontend/questionsListLoader?unit=AHAW
STAR-IDAZ members identified Vaccinology as one of the areas requiring collaborative activities at a global level. The BBSRC as part of work-package 4 is conducting a survey of global research activities, gaps and future needs in Veterinary Vaccinology to inform the development of future collaborative activities and identify potential members and key stakeholders for a Network in veterinary vaccinology. If you work or fund work in this area please follow the link to contribute. Please make sure your country’s needs are represented! Survey link: http://www.keysurvey.co.uk/f/489964/6ae7/
This study by Henrik Sundh, Bjorn Olav Kvamme, Frode Fridell, Rolf Erik Olsen, Tim Ellis, Geir Lasse Taranger and Kristina Sundell suggests that the intestinal barrier function of Atlantic salmon post smolts is reduced by common sea cages environments. It may also be used as a physiological indicator of welfare.
Fish farmed under high intensity aquaculture conditions are subjected to unnatural environments that may cause stress. Therefore awareness of how to maintain good health and welfare of farmed fish is important.
For Atlantic salmon held in sea cages, water flow, dissolved oxygen (DO) levels and temperature will fluctuate over time and the fish can at times be exposed to detrimentally low DO levels and high temperatures. This experimental study investigates primary and secondary stress responses of Atlantic salmon post smolts to long-term exposure to reduced and fluctuating DO levels and high water temperatures, mimicking situations in the sea cages. Plasma cortisol levels and cortisol release to the water were assessed as indicators of the primary stress response and intestinal barrier integrity and physiological functions as indicators of secondary responses to changes in environmental conditions.
Plasma cortisol levels were elevated in fish exposed to low (50 per cent and 60 per cent saturation) DO levels and low temperature (nine degreesC), at day 9, 29 and 48. The intestinal barrier function, measured as electrical resistance (TER) and permeability of mannitol at the end of the experiment, were reduced at 50 per cent DO, in both proximal and distal intestine.
When low DO levels were combined with high temperature (16degreesC), plasma cortisol levels were elevated in the cyclic 1:5 h at 85 per cent:50 per cent DO group and fixed 50 per cent DO group compared to the control (85 per cent DO) group at day 10 but not at later time points. The intestinal barrier function was clearly disturbed in the 50 per cent DO group; TER was reduced in both intestinal regions concomitant with increased paracellular permeability in the distal region.
This study reveals that adverse environmental conditions (low water flow, low DO levels at low and high temperature), that can occur in sea cages, elicits primary and secondary stress responses in Atlantic salmon post smolts. The intestinal barrier function was significantly affected by prolonged hypoxic stress even when no primary stress response was observed.
This suggests that intestinal barrier function is a good experimental marker for evaluation of chronic stress and that it can be a valuable tool to study the impact of various husbandry conditions on health and welfare of farmed Atlantic salmon. [Source: The Fish Site]